The object-oriented section of the course focused on the development of a simple farm simulation. Whilst you did not create a fully working farm, you did create crops and animals which can grow depending on the available light, water and food.
In addition, you created a field to which you could add your animals and crops. You controlled the growth of the crops and animals via a straight-forward command-line menu and likewise you used a menu to add and remove crops and animals from the fields.
However, using a menu for this kind of functionality is pretty clunky, therefore in this section we will develop graphical user-interfaces, first for crops, then for animals and finally for the field. This would mean that the code for the crops, animals and field would probably be part of the main window of your program.
You could say that the program logic the code that actually gives the simulation functionality is integrated with the user-interface code. Creating you code in this way may mean that your program logic is dependent on your interface, therefore if you wanted to change how the simulation worked or how the the interface looked you may have to make changes to both the interface code and the simulation code.
The approach we take in this tutorial is different, you have already created classes that have all of the functionality required for this program. We are going to re-use this code and develop a user-interface that can interact with this code but it will remain separate.
This means that if we want to change the interface we can be sure that we will not need to change the underlying simulation code and vice-versa. Reducing the dependency between the sections of code means it would be easier to use the same simulation code in another project with a totally different interface.
However, at A-Level there is another reason for ensuring that your students develop their code in this way: avoiding cakes that are all icing. Many students will spend ages creating pretty interfaces using interface builders and will neglect the underlying functionality.
By forcing them to develop classes for functionality first and then making them test these with a command-line interface you can ensure that they will create projects that meet most of their objectives before they even consider creating the graphical user interface. A-Level projects However, at A-Level there is another reason for ensuring that your students develop their code in this way: avoiding cakes that are all icing.
They have to bake the cake before they ice the cake. Python PyQt.
Installing PyQt on Windows 3. Introduction to PyQt 4. Graphical crop simulation 5. Creating a basic PyQt application 6. Introduction to Layouts 7.
Radio Button Widget 8. Creating the layouts 9. Switching layouts Adding growth functionality Graphics and resources Summary Field simulation Designing the user interface Graphical representation of crops and animals Resources file Crop and animal graphical sub-classes Python provides various options for developing graphical user interfaces GUIs.
Most important are listed below. We would look this option in this chapter. Tkinter is the standard GUI library for Python. Python when combined with Tkinter provides a fast and easy way to create GUI applications. Tkinter provides a powerful object-oriented interface to the Tk GUI toolkit.
Creating a GUI application using Tkinter is an easy task. Tkinter provides various controls, such as buttons, labels and text boxes used in a GUI application. These controls are commonly called widgets. There are currently 15 types of widgets in Tkinter. The Canvas widget is used to draw shapes, such as lines, ovals, polygons and rectangles, in your application.
The Checkbutton widget is used to display a number of options as checkboxes. The user can select multiple options at a time. The Label widget is used to provide a single-line caption for other widgets.
It can also contain images. The Menu widget is used to provide various commands to a user. These commands are contained inside Menubutton. The Radiobutton widget is used to display a number of options as radio buttons.
The user can select only one option at a time. The Spinbox widget is a variant of the standard Tkinter Entry widget, which can be used to select from a fixed number of values. A PanedWindow is a container widget that may contain any number of panes, arranged horizontally or vertically. A labelframe is a simple container widget.PyQt is a python binding of the open-source widget-toolkit Qt, which also functions as a cross-platform application development framework. A lot of major companies across all industries use Qt.
PyQt4 provides glue code for binding 4. As a result, PyQt5 is not backward compatible with the deprecated modules of the older version. In this tutorial, PyQt5 will be used for the demonstration of examples. As a result, it is a complicated process to build and install it from the source compared to other python libraries.
However, you can easily install PyQt5 using wheels. Installation with wheels Wheels are the new standard Python packaging and distribution format. Simply speaking, a wheel is a ZIP archive with a special name and. Wheels can be installed using pip Python's package managerwhich is included by default in the recent versions of Python.
So, if you have Python 3. If, however, you are using an older version of Python, you must download and install pip before going forward. Step 1 Alternatively, you can also download a Windows binary for the version of python installed on your computer. Once it is complete, proceed to the next section to write your first GUI app. Let's start with a simple app which will display an empty window on your screen. Alternatively, just double click your saved file to launch the application.
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If you have done everything right, a new window will open up with the title Guru99 as shown below. It's working.
It is not much, but it's enough to grasp the basics.3D Plane wire frame Graph Chart in Python
Now, let's see in detail what each of the lines in your program does. The QtWidgets module contains all the major widgets that you will be using in this tutorial.
This step is a necessity for PyQt5; every UI app must create an instance of QApplication, as a sort of entry point into the app. If you do not create it, errors will be shown.
In this example, you did not pass any arguments to QApplications. Therefore, you can also replace it with the code below and not even have to import the sys module. QWidget is the base class of all UI objects in Qt, and virtually everything you see in an app is a widget.
That includes dialogs, texts, buttons, bars, and so on. The feature that allows you to design complex user interfaces is that the widgets can be nested, i.
You will see this in action in the next section. In this case, you have resized the window to px by px. Here, you should remember that widgets could be nested together, the outermost widget i. In the example, the title bar will display Guru Since Qt has control over the app, python events are not processed unless we set them up inside the application. Also, note that the exec method has an underscore in its name; this is because exec was already a keyword in python and the underscore resolves naming conflict.
I am using the graphics. The balls should 'bounce' off the bottom and then resume falling back down.
The rate at which the ball falls is determined by its size. Currently the program generates and drops the balls with appropriate rates but when they 'bounce' the continue upwards indefinitely instead of falling again.
I need the generated bubbles to not overlap at all when being generated. Here is a half pseudo-code method for checking if a generated center and radius pair overlaps another bubble in the bubble list.
Note that it is indeed pseudocode because I don't know python syntax very well. Also note that you'll need to implement a dist function that takes in two Point objects and calculates the distance between them. You can eliminate some of the work done by the for loop by converting it to a while loop and exiting if overlapping is determined to be true as well:.
The loop now regenerates center points until the bubble is not overlapping with any bubble currently in the list. You might also consider regenerating the radius in that while loop too, in case the original radius is so big that no non-overlapping point exists.
This can lead to an infinite loop. Learn more. Python Simulation Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 8 months ago. Active 3 years, 8 months ago. Viewed times. Any ideas would be greatly appreciated. EDIT3: Code added to determine if balls are generated overlapping. Wyatt Wyatt 13 1 1 silver badge 7 7 bronze badges. Your speed function multiplies each bubble's current speed by a positive factor, so the bubbles all speed up in whatever direction they're moving. So if they're moving down, they move down faster.
If they're moving up, they move up faster.Simon has been a very productive co-developer of SimGUI. The large frame is the SimGUI application window. To its right are the standard menu items of SimGUI. To show them, the menus have been torn off by clicking on the dotted line on all SimGUI drop-down menu items.
The File sub-menu is for saving or opening files and also for quitting the application. By default, it supports saving the content of the output console. The Edit sub-menu is for any editing or change operations. By default, it supports changing model parameters and clearing the output console. The Run sub-menu is for running the SimPy model. By default, it is empty, as there is no model to run.
The View sub-menu is for calling up any application output, e. By default, it has the ability to automatically show the data from any Monitor instance in the SimPy application. The Help sub-menu is for viewing any information about SimGUI and the specific application behind it. To show how simple it is to interface a model to SimGUI, here is an example with a simple simulation model:.
It also defines three parameters duration, maxFlighTime and nrLaunchers with their initial values which the user can change interactively before each run. The model uses a Monitor for keeping track of the number of rockets launched over time. This requires no application code.
In addition to the constructor parameters, the SimGUI fields of interest to the applications programmer are:. This is done by defining the methods to be overloaded in the SimGUI subclass. Brings up a warning box staing that a feature is not implemented yet.
Plotly Python Open Source Graphing Library
Useful during development of application. This class provides for interactive user changes of model parameters. Any user-input is checked against the type of the original default value of the parameter. In this version, parameters of type integer, floating point, text and list are supported. Boolean parameters can be implemented by using 0 for False and 1 for True. This results in parameters gui. No user programming is required for this. Just e.
SimPlot Manual. SimPy Tutorials. Enter search terms or a module, class or function name.SimPy is used to develop a simple simulation of a bank with a number of tellers. This Python package provides Processes to model active components such as messages, customers, trucks, and planes. It has three classes to model facilities where congestion might occur: Resources for ordinary queues, Levels for the supply of quantities of material, and Stores for collections of individual items.
Only examples of Resources are described here. It also provides Monitors and Tallys to record data like queue lengths and delay times and to calculate simple averages. It uses the standard Python random package to generate random numbers.
Starting with SimPy 2. It is quite compatible with the current procedural approach which is used in the models described here. The examples run with SimPy version 1. This tutorial is best read with the SimPy Manual or Cheatsheet at your side for reference. Before attempting to use SimPy you should be familiar with the Python language. In particular you should be able to use classes. Python is free and available for most machine types.
You can find out more about it at the Python web site. SimPy is compatible with Python version 2. In this tutorial we model a simple bank with customers arriving at random. We develop the model step-by-step, starting out simply, and producing a running program at each stage. The programs we develop are available without line numbers and ready to go, in the bankprograms directory. Please copy them, run them and improve them - and in the tradition of open-source software suggest your modifications to the SimPy users list.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I am creating the real time simulation of the rays passing throught the system of lenses and mirrors. The parts of the system can be moved by the user and the program calculates new rays. I have already written a nice module that allows me to rapidly simulate the trajectory of the rays in any system configration.
I was using the PIL's ImageDraw module to draw a frame that represents the generated data and wxPython to show the frame and to allow the user interaction.
Unfortunately, the PIL and wxPython combination is very slow 10 fps. PIL itself is able to draw only 15 frames per second I draw the whole frame using only line primitive. Learn more. Python GUI for real time simulations. Ask Question. Asked 6 years, 10 months ago. Active 6 years, 10 months ago. Viewed times. Is there any other way to rapidly draw and show the frame using Python?
Piotr Dabkowski Piotr Dabkowski 4, 4 4 gold badges 28 28 silver badges 44 44 bronze badges. You're probably not happy with this, but have you tried pygame?
I did not try. Do you think that they will be faster than PIL and wx combination? PiterD I managed to get a stable FPS with pyglet resolution independent not sure what's behind it to behave that way. If it's about drawing to a framebuffer, then that's possible as well. Active Oldest Votes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog. The Overflow How many jobs can be done at home?
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